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30 Common Weeds in Nigeria, their Botanical Names, and Pictures

Are you familiar with some of the common weeds in Nigeria?

Weeds are a common global problem, but each region has some invasive species that are more prevalent. 

Several different types of weeds grow in Nigeria. Some of these weeds are native to Sub-Saharan Africa while others have been categorized as invasive species.

Below is a list of the 30 most common weeds in Nigeria, their scientific names, and physical characteristics.  

1. Spear Grass (Imperata cylindrica

Spear grass has white-silvery flowerheads and can grow up to 3m in height
Spear grass has white-silvery flowerheads and can grow up to 3m in height. Image: Canva/stoon
  • Local Name: gasa kigere
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Spear grass (cogongrass or kunai grass) is a tall, perennial grass that grows up to 3m in height. It is native to Asia, Southern Europe, Micronesia, Australia, and Africa (Savannah zone in Nigeria). 

Imperata cylindrica produces green to bluish-green leaves about 2 cm wide and 12 to 80 cm long. 

The leaves are slightly wide at the base, with a sharp tip, finely toothed margin, whitish midrib, hairy upper surface, and hairless underside. 

The weed produces flower heads above the stalks, growing as high as 28 cm long. The flower heads are cylindrical and silvery-white, and they produce fuzzy-looking seeds. 

2. Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata)

Siam weed is locally known as ishero
Siam weed is locally known as ishero. Image: Canva/chayanan
  • Local Name: akintola-ta-ku or ishero 
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Siam weed (also known as Jack in the Bush, Christmas bush, or devil weed) is a perennial herb that can grow up to 2.5 meters tall. 

It is native to the USA, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean, but it is also widely found in the tropical rain forests of Guinea and the Savannah regions of Nigeria. 

Chromolaena odorata has light-green, oppositely arranged egg-shaped leaves with an ovate base, pointed tip, and serrated margins. 

The leaves are also hairy on both surfaces and have a strong odor when crushed. 

The weed produces small, pale pink (to pale mauve) flowers that bloom at the tips of their branches and appear in clusters. 

It also bears black to dark-brown achene seeds, which are slightly hairy to enable wind dispersal. 

3. African Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra or Gynandropsis gynandra)

The African Spider plant
The African spider plant. Image: westafricanplants.senckenberg
  • Local Name: Ekuya
  • Family: Cleomaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual 

African spider plant (also known as African cabbage or Shona cabbage) is an herbaceous annual herb that grows in a branching pattern and can reach a height of between 25 and 150cm. 

It is native to Africa but widespread in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. 

The plant has palmately compound leaves, producing 3-7 oval-shaped leaflets with finely toothed margins and sparse hairs. 

The leaves are edible and are often cooked as leafy green vegetables in many African communities. 

The African spider plant produces small, conspicuous white (sometimes pink to purple) flowers. Like the leaves, the flowers are edible. 

4. Gale of the Weed (Phyllanthus amarus)

The short-growing weed is locally known as Dobisowo or Ngwu
The short-growing weed is locally known as Dobisowo or Ngwu. Image: levypreserve.org
  • Local Name: Dobisowo or Ngwu 
  • Family: Phyllanthaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual 

Phyllanthus amarus is an annual herb that is native to the regions of the Americas, Asia, and Africa.

It has several common names, including Gale of the Wind, stonebreaker, pick-a-back, Seed on the Leaf, dobisowo (Yoruba), and ngwu (Igbo). 

The plant is short-growing, reaching about 30-60cm tall. It produces small, elliptic-oblong leaves (5-10mm long) arranged alternately and in two rows along the branch. 

Phyllanthus amarus has small, star-shaped radial flowers (about 2mm in size) that are yellowish. 

5. Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla)

Milkweed, locally known as Nono-kunchiya, Egele, or Tebaje
Milkweed, locally known as Nono-kunchiya, Egele, or Tebaje. Image: Flickr/ahmadfuad
  • Local Name: Nono-kunchiya, Egele, or Tebaje
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual 

Milkweed (also known as Mexican fire plant or wild poinsettia) is an annual herb native to the subtropical region of America. However, it is widespread in many parts of the world, including Nigeria. 

Euphorbia heterophylla is an erect plant (reaching up to 1 meter in height) with reddish hollow stems.

Its green to reddish-purple ovate (sometimes lanceolate) leaves are arranged alternately at the base of the stem and in a clustered formation at the top. 

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The plant also produces small, inconspicuous yellowish-green false flowers (cyathia), which bloom in clusters at the top of the stems. They are surrounded by conspicuous red, orange, or yellow bracts. 

6. Wild Gooseberry (Physalis angulata)

The Koropo plant is known for its edible pale yellow fruits
The Koropo plant is known for its edible pale yellow fruits. Image: Pixabay/mrgajowy3
  • Local Name: Koropo 
  • Family: Solanaceae 
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual 

Wild gooseberry is an annual herbaceous plant native to tropical America but widespread worldwide, including Nigeria. 

It is an erect-growing plant with hollow stems that grow up to 1m in height. It has dark green, simple, alternate leaves that are ovate, slightly haired, and have deeply-toothed margins. 

The plant produces green fruits (berries) in a hanging calyx that turn pale yellow when ripe. The fruits are edible (raw, cooked, or in jams), but other plant parts are poisonous. 

7. Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)

Common purslane
Common purslane. Image: clemson.edu
  • Local Name: Babbajibji, Esan omode, or Papasan
  • Family: Portulacaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual 

Common purslane is an annual succulent plant thought to be native to North Africa, India, and the Middle East but widespread in several places worldwide. 

It is a short-growing plant (about 40cm tall) with smooth, reddish stems that are mostly prostate. It has thick and succulent leaves that are green to reddish, oval-shaped (with a rounded tip), and a smooth margin. 

Common purslane blooms yellow flowers, which form solo at the leaf axils and in clusters at the tip of the stems. 

8. Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus

The tall-growing nut grass can reach a height of 1.4 m
The tall-growing nut grass can reach a height of 1.4 m. Image: Flickr/navidapok
  • Local Name: Gwaigwaya or Imùmú òfio õmu
  • Family: Cyperaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Nut grass (also known as nutsedge or purple nutsedge) is a perennial colony-forming grass native to Africa, Southern Asia, and regions of Europe. 

It is a tall-growing grass that can reach up to 1.4 m tall. Its leaves, which are green to yellowish, sprout in clusters of three from the base of the plant and are about 5-8mmm wide and 5-20cm long. 

Nut grass produces reddish-purple to reddish-brown flower stalks at the tip of the solitary stems. The plant also forms rhizomes in the roots, from which new shoots can emerge. 

9. Wormbush (Spigelia anthelmia)

The Aparan's pink-stripped flowers open up in the afternoon
The Aparan’s pink-stripped flowers open up in the afternoon. Image: Flickr/nelindah
  • Local Name: Aparan or Ewe aran
  • Family: Loganiaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Wormbush (worm grass or West Indian pinkroot) is a perennial herbaceous plant native to the Americas and Caribbean. However, it is widespread in many parts of the world, including Nigeria. 

It is a short-growing plant with a mostly unbranched stem that can reach around 50 cm in height. 

Spigelia anthelmia has green, ovate leaves that are deeply veined and with a smooth margin. Short petioles (about 1cm long) attach the leaves to the stems. 

Wormbush blooms star-shaped white flowers with attractive pink or purple stripes, which open up in the afternoons. 

10. Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon)

Bermuda grass also called couch grass forms a thick mat of grass on the ground
Bermuda grass, also called couch grass, forms a thick mat of grass on the ground. Image: observation.org/robertknoops
  • Local Name: jawegboto or kooko igba
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Bermuda grass (couch grass) is a perennial grass native to Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia. However, it is widespread worldwide. 

It is a short-growing grass with purple-tinged stems that grow up to 30cm tall. Its grey-green leaves are slightly flattened, 2-15 cm long, with rough edges and a sharp tip. 

Bermuda grass produces seed heads in clusters (2-7 spikes) at the top of the stem. It also has a deep root system with spreading rhizomes, which allow it to form a thick mat on the ground. 

11. Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes or Pontederia crassipes)

Water hyacinth is a free-floating aquatic plant that invades rivers and lakes
Water hyacinth is a free-floating aquatic plant that invades rivers and lakes. Image: longfellowsgh
  • Local Name: Gbeboru or Lakwa
  • Family: Pontederiaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Water hyacinth is a perennial aquatic plant native to South America but widespread in many parts of the world. 

It is a common invasive weed in Nigeria, where it often invades rivers by forming dense covers that are hard to eliminate. 

Water hyacinth is a free-floating plant that can grow to a height between 0.5 and 1m above the water’s surface. Its thick, dark green, ovate leaves are deeply veined and glossy (waxy). 

The plant produces conspicuous violet (or lilac) flowers that bloom in clusters on a single, erect stalk. It also produces mature fruit capsules to release 200-450 small seeds. 

12. Witchweed (Striga hermonthica

Witchweed in a sorghum field
Witchweed in a sorghum field. Image: Flickr/iita
  • Local Name: al boodah or odaar
  • Family: Orobanchaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual 

Witchweed (purple witchweed or giant witchweed) is an annual herb native to Africa. It is common in sub-Saharan Africa regions, including Nigeria, where it is a devastating weed to crop fields. 

It is an erect (sometimes creeping) plant with quadrangular stems that can grow between 30 and 100cm tall. Its green, alternately arranged, lanceolate leaves are about 2cm wide and 2-8cm long. 

Witchweed produces bright pink (sometimes white or rose-red) flowers, which form a dense spike at the tip of the stems. It also bears a seed pod, which produces several tiny, dust-like seeds. 

READ ALSO:  20 common weeds and their scientific names (pictures)

13. Mexican Sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia)

Agale can grow 2-3 m in height
Agale can grow 2-3 m in height. Image: wiktrop/tlbourgeois
  • Local Name: Jogbo, Agale, or sepeleba
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial (sometimes annual)

Mexican sunflower (tree marigold) is a perennial (sometimes annual) plant native to Mexico but widespread in many parts worldwide. 

It is an erect plant with cylindrical, woody, and hollow stems that can grow 2-3m in height. It has greyish-green ovate leaves with fine hairs, pointed lobes, and a serrated margin. 

Tithonia diversifolia also produces showy, daisy-like flowers. The flower heads have bright orange petals and a central disc with several bright orange florets. 

14. River Tamarind (Leucaena leucocephala

Ogun bere
Ogun bere. Image: Canva/kanurismail
  • Local Name: Ogun bere
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

River tamarind (also known as white popinac or white lead tree) is a perennial plant native to South Mexico and Central America. 

However, it is widespread worldwide, including Nigeria, where it is a common invasive species.

The plant can grow up to between 2 and 10m tall (sometimes up to 18 m). It has small, grey-green bipinnate leaflets arranged in two rows on a leafstalk, with each branch having about 11-23 pairs of leafstalks. 

Leucaena leucocephala produces tiny flowers in a round cluster with a pompom-like appearance. The flower heads are borne on the axils of the leaves, where they are attached by stalks that are around 2 to 6cm long.  

15. Tridax Daisy (Tridax procumbens)

Tridax daisy is a simple creeping plant with white ray petals
Tridax daisy is a simple creeping plant with white ray petals. Image: westafricanplants.senckenberg
  • Local Name: Muwagun or Iyalode
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Tridax daisy (also known as coatbuttons) is a plant native to tropical Americas but widespread in many subtropical, tropical, and mild temperate regions worldwide, where it is an invasive species. 

It is a creeping plant with a hairy stem that can grow 20-75 cm long. 

Tridax procumbens has simple, oppositely arranged, dark-green, ovate leaves with irregularly serrated margins and fine hairs on both sides. 

The plant’s flowers have a bright yellow disk surrounded by white ray petals. It also produces achene fruits covered in bristle hairs. 

16. Wild Sunflower (Aspilia Africana)

The Yunyun or Yanyan has conspicuous golden yellow flowers
The Yunyun or Yanyan has conspicuous golden yellow flowers. Image: westafricanplants.senckenberg
  • Local Name: Yunyun or Yanyan
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Wild sunflower (the hemorrhage plant) is a perennial plant native to (and widespread in) Africa. 

It is an erect-growing perennial herb with woody stems reaching 25-130cm tall. It has hairy, lanceolate evergreen leaves that are 4-12 cm by 0.7-3.7cm in size and have serrated margins. 

The plant also produces conspicuous golden yellow to orange flowers, with a central disc of florets surrounded by ray petals. 

17. Elephant Grass (Pennisetum purpureum

Elephant grass grows in clumps and is often used as fodder for livestock
Elephant grass grows in clumps and is often used as fodder for livestock. Image: Facebook/supernepiark
  • Local Name: ciyawa giwa, achara, and fafa (wafa), or koriko erin
  • Family: Poaceae 
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Elephant grass is a tropical grass native to several African countries, including Nigeria. It is often used as fodder for livestock but is also considered a weed, especially in crop fields. 

Elephant grass grows in a clumping format, with tall stems (reaching 7-8 m tall) that emerge from rhizomes or basal offshoots. 

Its leaves are bluish-green, 3cm wide and up to 1m long, densely populated with white hairs, and with a finely toothed margin. 

The plant rarely produces flowers when grown as fodder. However, it can produce inflorescence spikes (yellowish-brown to purple) that form above the stems. 

18. Guinea Grass (Megathyrsus maximus

Guinea grass invades crop fields and waterways but it's also used as fodder for livestock
Guinea grass invades crop fields and waterways but it’s also used as fodder for livestock. Image: plantnet.org/susanbrown
  • Local Name: Ikin, agarama, or akun
  • Family: Poaceae 
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Guinea grass, also known as green panic grass, is perennial and native to Africa and the Middle East. 

It is often used as fodder for livestock but can be an invasive weed, especially in crop and sugarcane fields. 

Guinea grass is an erect-growing plant capable of reaching up to 3m in height. Its dark green leaves are long and narrow (up to 3 cm wide and 100 cm long), with an entire margin and a sharp tip. 

It produces branched seed heads, with the lower branches emerging in clusters. The seed heads are green (sometimes reddish to purplish). 

19. Itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis

Itchgrass locally called Nyalo
Itchgrass locally called Nyalo. Image: wiktrop/jaugustin
  • Local Name: Nyalo 
  • Family: Poaceae 
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual 

Itchgrass, also known as corn grass or kokoma grass, is an annual grass native to tropical areas of Africa and Asia. It is a common weed in Nigeria, affecting crops like sorghum. 

Itchgrass has erect, laterally branching stalks that can grow to 30-400 cm tall. 

Its pale-green leaves are long and narrow (5-20mm wide and 15-45cm long), with an entire margin (rough to the touch) and a short tip. Both the stems and leaves are covered in hairs. 

The plant produces cylindrical flower spikes that are green to yellow and brown. The spikes are long (2.5-15cm), jointed (groups of 3-4), and emerge from the leaf axils at the top of the stems. 

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20. Chinese Bur (Triumfetta rhomboidea

Ako bolo bolo has dark green leaves and tiny yellow flowers
Ako bolo bolo has dark green leaves and tiny yellow flowers. Image: weeds.brisbane/chrisgardne
  • Local Name: Ako bolo bolo
  • Family: Tiliaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial (sometimes annual). 

Chinese bur, also known as diamond burbark, is a perennial shrub native to Africa (including Nigeria), Asia, and Australia and widespread in the Americas. 

It has woody stems that grow up to 1.5m tall and dark-green, simple, alternate leaves with irregularly serrated margins. 

The plant also produces yellow to orange flowers (with five petals) and a round fruit pond covered with hairs and hooked spines. 

21. African Feather Grass (Cenchrus macrourus)   

The African feather grass
The African feather grass. Image: weedbusters.org/carolynlewis
  • Local Name: Ijabe or Adeolubaka
  • Family: Poaceae 
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial  

African feather grass (bedding grass or fountain grass) is perennial and native to tropical and southern regions of Africa and Asia. It is also widely distributed and can be found in other regions like Australia. 

It has upright, slender stems that grow to 1-1.8m tall and in a clumping pattern.

Cenchrus macrourus leaves, which grow from the base of the stem, are lanceolate, dark green, sharp tip, and with a rough (and sometimes, purplish) edge. 

The plant produces long (10-40cm) flower spikes that are brown to purplish yellow. 

22. Mary Grass (Setaria barbata)

Mary grass, locally known as Gambadawari has long stalks and dark green pointed leaves
Mary grass, locally known as Gambadawari has long stalks and dark green pointed leaves. Image: wiktrop.org
  • Local Name: Gambadawari
  • Family: Poaceae 
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial  

Mary grass, also known as corn grass or bristly foxtail grass, is a type of grass native to Africa and Asia but widespread worldwide. 

It has erect-growing stalks (growing to 1-3m tall), which are loosely tufted and covered with hairs at the nodes. The leaves are dark green, narrow (5-20mm) and long (5-30cm), with a rough margin and pointed tip. 

Mary grass produces branched, yellowish-green flower spikes at the top of the stalks that are 3 to 25cm long. 

23. Stinking Passionflower (Passiflora foetida)  

The weed has white flowers that open up in the morning and close by noon
The weed has white flowers that open up in the morning and close by noon. Image: Canva/nguhagarkar
  • Local Name: Ewe Ijebu
  • Family: Passifloraceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial  

Stinking passionflower (also known as wild maracuja or stoneflower) is a perennial species of passion flower native to the Americas. 

However, it is widespread in many parts of the world, including Asia, the Maldives, and Africa. 

Stinking passionflower is a climbing plant that can reach 1.5 to 6m tall. Its thin stems are covered with sticky yellow hairs. 

It has hairy, dark green ovate to angular leaves with three lobes that produce an unpleasant odor when crushed.  

The plant produces white flowers with a ring of purple streaks at the center. The flowers open in the morning and close by noon. 

It bears yellow to orange fruits enclosed by deeply divided, hairy, sticky floral bracts.  

24. Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens

The plant has leguminous pods that turn orange when ripe
The plant has leguminous pods that turn orange when ripe. Image: Canva/ipuwadol
  • Local Name: Ewe-ina or Yerepe
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual   

Velvet bean, also known as monkey tamarind or lacuna bean, is a legume native to the tropical regions of Africa and Asia but widespread worldwide. 

It is a climbing shrub with long hairy vines reaching over 15m in length. 

The plant has trifoliate leaves, which are covered by hair on both sides when young. It also blooms flowers in clusters of white, purple, or lavender. 

The velvet bean plant also bears linear leguminous pods, which are green and covered with dense hairs. 

The pods (which turn orange when ripe) carry up to seven bean-like seeds that can be black, whitish, or brown. 

25. Shame Plant (Mimosa pudica

The sensitive shame plant leaves fold when touched
The sensitive shame plant leaves fold when touched. Image: Pixabay/aninditasinha
  • Local Name: Agbohomechieukwu, Kama, Ewe padimo or Ewe patanmo
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Shame plant is a perennial plant that goes by several local names, including sensitive plant, sleepy plant, humble plant, or touch-me-not. 

It is native to the Caribbean and South America but is widespread in many regions worldwide. 

It is an erect-growing plant (about 30cm tall) when young, but it creeps over time, reaching up to 1.5m in length. The stems are green (sometimes red) in color and are covered by sharp pricks.

Shame plant has small, bi-pinnate, green to bluish-green leaflets arranged in fern-like appearances. The leaflets are sensitive to touch and will often fold up when touched, hence the name. 

26. Monkey Rope (Adenia cissampeloides)

The monkey plant is an invasive yet quite useful weed as its leaves are edible and the stems can make strong ropes
The monkey plant is an invasive yet quite useful weed as its leaves are edible and the stems can make strong ropes. Image: westafricanplants.senckenberg
  • Local Name: Arokeke, Godogbo, or Akan-twi
  • Family: Passifloraceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Monkey rope is a plant native to the tropical region of Africa, including Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Cameroon, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. 

It is a climbing vine with pale green (sometimes gray-green) hairy stems reaching 30m long. 

The plant’s leaves are grey-green, three-lobbed, and heart-shaped. Adenia cissampeloides produces both male and female flowers, with the male flowers having fused filaments. 

Despite its potential to be invasive, the monkey plant is very useful. The leaves are edible (raw or cooked), stems are used to make ropes, and tree sap is used in cosmetics. 

27. Creeping Woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata)

The Creeping woodsorrel has yellow flowers that close up when exposed to direct sunlight
The Creeping woodsorrel has yellow flowers that close up when exposed to direct sunlight. Image: umassamherst.edu
  • Local Name: Ewe Ilẹ Alabahun
  • Family: Oxalidaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual 

Creeping woodsorrel, also known as sleeping beauty, is an herbaceous plant native to some parts of Asia but widespread in subtropical regions worldwide. 

As the name suggests, it is a creeping plant with slender stems about 50cm long. It has green, trifoliate leaves with rounded lobes arranged alternately and possessing an entire margin. 

Creeping woodsorrel produces conspicuous yellow flowers with five small, round-edged petals. The flowers close up when exposed to direct sunlight, hence the name “sleeping beauty.”

28. Mountain Thistle (Acanthus montanus)

The plant has glossy dark green leaves with sharp spines
The plant has glossy dark green leaves with sharp spines. Image: csbg.nsc.ru/artemov
  • Local Name: ogwu ahga
  • Family: Acanthaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial  

Mountain thistle, also known as false thistle or bear’s breech, is a flowering plant native to tropical regions of Africa. 

It is found in countries such as Angola, Chad, Zambia, Sierra Leone, Benin, and Nigeria. 

It has semi-woody stems that grow up to 1.8m tall and spread (through branching) to about 60cm wide. Its leaves are large (30cm long), ovate to lanceolate, glossy, dark green, with sharp spines and wavy margins. 

From summer to fall, the plant produces showy, pale pink spikes of flowers at the peak of the stems.  

29. Tropical Spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis

Tropical spiderwort locally known as Godogbo
Tropical spiderwort locally known as Godogbo. Image: Canva/saratm
  • Local Name: Godogbo
  • Family: Commelinaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Perennial 

Tropical spiderwort, also known as Benghal dayflower is a perennial herb native to tropical regions of Africa and Asia. 

It is also widely distributed in other parts of the world, including the West Indies and Australia. 

The plant has hairy, branched stems, which can be erect (10-30cm tall), crawling (20-90cm long), or climbing if supported. 

Its leaves are pale green, lanceolate to ovate, with an undulated margin and an acute tip. 

Tropical spiderwort also produces tiny, bright blue flowers with three triangular petals. It also bears a dry seed capsule that bursts open when mature to release its seeds. 

30. Thorn Apple (Datura stramonium)

The Thorn apple has white or violet trumpet-shaped flowers
The Thorn apple has white or violet trumpet-shaped flowers. Image: Canva/picturepartners
  • Local Name: myaramuo, Zakani, or gegemu 
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Annual or Perennial: Annual  

Thorn apple, also known as Jimsonweed or devil’s trumpet, is native to Central America. However, it is widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, including Nigeria, where it is an invasive weed. 

Thorn apple is an erect-growing, branching plant that can reach a height of 1.5m. Its stout, hairy stems are pale yellow-green (sometimes reddish purple). 

Datura stramonium leaves are dark green, simple, and alternately arranged, with toothed margins. 

The plant also produces white to violet, trumpet-shaped flowers and a green, spiny capsule fruit that turns brown when mature.